Every August 17, Indonesian people always commemorate the day of proclamation. This date is a turning point from the long history of Indonesian independence, where previously the population of the country had been colonized for many years. Before the proclamation occurred, there were many important events behind it.
Japan lost to the Allies
The background reading of the text of the proclamation, beginning with Japan’s surrender to the Allies. Japan in 1944 announced that the East Indies, Indonesia, would be allowed to become independent at a later date.
The announcement was made because the Japanese army was increasingly desperate, even the Saipan Islands were also captured from Japan.
In 1945, BPUPKI (Indonesian Independence Preparation Business Investigation Agency) and PPKI (Indonesian Independence Preparation Committee) were formed.
The purpose of the establishment of the two bodies was to attract sympathy from the Indonesian people, in order to help Japan fight the allies.
During the Pacific War, Hirosima was bombed on August 6, 1945, followed by the bombing of Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. The incident left about 14,000 Japanese citizens victimized and eventually claimed defeat to the allies.
In the aftermath of this event, Japan promised to give independence on August 24, 1945 for Indonesia.
Pros and Cons of Proclamation on Rengasdengklok Event
The history of Indonesian independence also experienced the pros and cons ahead of the reading of the proclamation. The pros and cons of this occur between the young and the old.
Where the old class are members of PPKI such as Soekarno and Hatta. While the young people are represented by PETA members and students.
This pro-cons occurs because the young people consider that the old class is too conservative, because they want the reading of the proclamation must go through the PPKI and in accordance with the procedure promised by Japan, namely on August 24, 1945.
On the other hand, the young people refused if the proclamation should be implemented through PPKI.
Because the young people consider that PPKI is a form of Japan, and they want independence by their own power.
Sutan Syahrir who belonged to the young group was the first figure who urged Soekarno-Hatta to immediately make a proclamation.
Furthermore, the official meeting was held in Pegangsaan Timur Jakarta on August 15, 1945. Attended by Djohar Nur, Subianto, Armansyah, Chairul Saleh, Kusnandar, Wikana, Margono, and Subadio.
The results of the meeting led by Chairul Saleh decided that Indonesia’s independence should not depend on others, and was the right of the people.
Although the decision of the meeting that became part of the history of Indonesian independence had been conveyed to Soekarno-Hatta, they still insisted with its establishment that the proclamation must be carried out through ppki.
So that in the end the young people brought Soekarno-Hatta to Rengasdengklok, one of the areas in Karawang Regency.
The choice of taking Soekarno-Hatta out of Jakarta was to keep them away from Japanese influence. Soekarno-Hatta security to Rengasdengklok assisted by PETA army equipment.
Rengasdengklok itself was chosen because of its strategic and remote location, so peta soldiers could oversee every step of the Japanese army.
Formulation and Endorsement of proclamation text
The occurrence of the Rengasdengklok event made the way of Sukarno-Hatta’s mind changed, and in the end agreed that the proclamation of independence should be read immediately.
After returning to Jakarta, they headed to admiral Maeda’s residence to formulate the text of the proclamation.
Admiral Maeda’s house was chosen and became part of Indonesia’s history of independence, as Maeda was the head of the Naval Liaison Office safe from Japanese military threats.
The meeting at Admiral Maeda’s residence was also attended by Sukarno, BM. Diah, and Mbah Diro from the youth.
In the end based on talks between Ir. Soekarno, Moh. Hatta, and Ahmad Soebardjo, obtained the formulation of the proclamation text which was directly handwritten by Sukarno.
Sukarno’s handwritten manuscript will undergo three changes after being typed by Sayuti Melik.
Reading of the Proclamation of Independence
After it was formulated and ratified, the reading of the proclamation was made on August 17, 1945. At first the Japanese people and soldiers thought that the reading of the text would be done in the Ikada square.
Even on the basis of this prejudice, the Japanese army had already blockaded the Ikada field first. The leader of sudiro pioneer line who was present in Ikada field at that time, then conveyed the situation that occurred there to Muwardi, the head of Soekarno’s security.
At that time he knew that the reading of the proclamation was going to be broadcast at Soekarno’s residence, Jalan Pegangsaan Timur 56 Jakarta.
At that time, Sukarno’s home page had been crowded by the masses ahead of the second of the proclamation. All were busy preparing for the reading of the text, even Fatmawati (Sukarno’s wife) was sewing the flag with hands that were not standard in size.
After complete preparation, the text of the proclamation was read by Sukarno which became the history of Indonesian independence.
Indonesia’s journey to gain independence is not short. The people of the country must feel the cruel colonization in the space of many years.
Even after the proclamation was proclaimed, there are still many other struggles that must be taken such as the creation of the 1945 Constitution and others, so that Indonesia can become the country as it is now.